Attaché for Legal and Oceanic Affairs

Foreign Vizakhra
MAR -Maritime Convention Preparatory Team-

Documentation: Oceanic Claims

In preparation of a draft international or UNV convention on spheres of oceanic interest, here all known statements of nations regarding their respective positions. Additionally, I include some inofficial statements from Utanian ("Mike") and Lendosan ("Thomas") embassy officers.

(St. Kilda, 8 April 300 or before)

This message to the nations of Vexillium is to re-state that St. Kilda's maritime frontier is 200 miles/322 km. from the mean high tide line of all its island territories and the North Cape Parish. All ships engaged in innocent passage remain welcome to enter St. Kilda's territorial waters but are subject to boarding and inspection by the St. Kildan Coast Guard. This policy is in concert with standard international agreements. Fishing within territorial waters is forbidden except by holders of licenses issued by the Government of St. Kilda.

(11 April 300) (claim obsolete by new declaration of 8 April 301)

Foreign Department

Salem Alejkum to the illustrious Vexillic Nations!

The Sultanate of Phoenicia claims its Territorial Waters to extend 180 nautical miles (= 333 km) from each point of the Phoenician coast, including islands, into the ocean. The seaward border against neighbouring states is a perpendicular line from the point where the land border reaches the coast.

A chart portraying the claim will be published later.

Within these Territorial Waters,
-- fishing or crosing with fishing craft is forbidden for all non-Phoenician seacraft,
-- crossing by other merchant ships except fishing craft is free,
-- friendly crossing by foreign naval force is subject to prior permission by the Forign Department,
-- flying is allowed subjct to the orders issued by the Royal Aviation Office.

Every violation will be pursued, infringing fishing craft captured, infringing aircraft or batleships fired upon.

At the time bing, the Royal Zartanian Navy and Air Force are in charge of enforcing these rules.

Peace to Vexillium's Oceans!

Sheik G'Ensh-Er (manu proprio)
Secretary for Foreign Affairs

Office of the Prime Minister
Kingdom of Christiana

April 3, 301

The government of Christiana is posting the patrol area of the Royal Coast Guard (RCG). On the map, attached, areas heavily patrolled are shown as solid light blue. This area is known as Sea Station Alpha. Main RCG bases are shown on the map.

The government of Christiana has an agreement to train the Coast Guard of Eichensehria (CGE), and is jointly patriolling the areas off of their coast in alternating squares with them. We call this area Sea Station Echo.

Christiana also patrols to the northern sea limits (the Pole) in the alternating square areas to the north/northeast of Fileminhon (alternating to differentiate; we patrol in all areas). We call this area of operation Sea Station North (for the North Pole).

We call upon our neighbors to sign agreements for patrolling to the west and east. Please review our map and advise concerning your interests. Please note that we call this area our "sphere of influence", and not our "territorial claim".

Our Royal Navy supports the RCG as needed.

John Joseph, PM
For the King

Office of the Prime Minister
Kingdom of Christiana

April 4, 301

To all of the nations of Vexillium:

We attach to this "Claim of Territory" a map outlining the territories and territorial waters that the government of the Kingdom of Christiana administers for the benefit of its King and people, and for the benefit of the environment and the peoples of the world.

We urge all nations to publicly pronounce their territorial claims as such. We also ask our neighbors to enter into negotiations if their are any disputes or differences.

Christiana ascribes to all international territorial and maritime laws.

John Joseph, PM
For the King

(between 4 and 6 Apr 301)

The Reeves Office
The Bailey
Sibury SY1 BA1

To The Nations of Vexillium

Fellow Vexillians!

The Shires of Somery hereby claim the territory shown on the enclosed map. Possible complaints should be directed to

The Office of Outlandish Matters
Master Ronal Lear, Esq.
The Bailey
Sibury SY1 BA1

Signed with Respect
Coleridge Earts Willish
Reeve of the Shires of Somery

(6 Apr 301)

Department of Transport
Royal Hydrographic Office

To the Seafaring Nations of Vexillium

Salem Alejkum to the Nations of Vexillium!

Well knowing that the word "Territorial Claim" must sound strange in the mouth of a Fenizic officer these days, I nevertheless have to make a point which might bring peace to the subject discussion. *Please note that this message is not co-ordinated with any other offices or departments of the Fenizic Administration, so I might find friendly ears.*

Feniz, some time ago, unilaterally declared sovereignty over a part of the sea 180 nautical miles from the coast into the ocean. This claim (attached) was made (a) after a similar claim from St Kilda (included in attachment), (b) without any knowlwdge of the 12-miles-agreement and (c) without contradiction from any nation.

The claim is mainly on fishing rights (vital for Feniz) and air traffic control (pure safety reasons!).

Feniz, pardon me, this office is prepared to review its claim. But before that, I would like to propose definitions which might be able to give right to either side of the discussing nations.

(a) Within a 12-nm-zone, full sovereignty may be exercised, encompassing: Regulate and secure sea traffic (maritime police, life boat service), stop and search ships, prohibit entry of special categories like tankers (protection of environment) or warships.

In case of criminal acts, a ship may be followed, stopped and searched beyond this zone.

(b) Within a 200-nm-zone, exclusive economic exploitation may be exercised, encompssing: Fishing, prospecting ground resources, building artificial islands (but with no rights of sovereignty like at (a) around them).

(c) Within a 1500-nm-zone (meant to cover all sea areas), regulations for the safety of air traffic may be enacted (but not enforced other than by legal prosecution, i.e. radar identification but no fighter action).

Please think about the consequences of turning every "may" into a "must", thus better enforcing sea and air safety, for example.

I would like to hear your opinion.

Peace to Vexillium!

Capt. In'Der-See Aga
Director, Royal Hydrographic Office

(6 April 301)

To: The Sultanate of Feniz, Royal Hyrographic Office
From: Madison Cigcau, Allacoan Foreign Minister

Greetings to Feniz! Allacoa has read your proposal, and we respectfully must disagree with your findings in regards to extending a nation's spehere of influence in oceanic waters. We feel that this presents more problems than it solves.

Particularly, there is an issue of those nations that border oceans but do not have the larger distances you specify for fishing and safety zones. Allacoa is one of those nations. Hence, Allacoa will not recognize any claims beyond the 12nm limit for any purpose.

Regards, Madison Cigcau Allacoan Foreign Minister

(7 April 301)

The BWA extends its greetings, in the name of all People of the Realm!

Attached please find a schematic rough map of all current land holdings of the Realm, as well as a delineation of the Realm's "Sphere of Interest" in terms of oceanic expanses. The "Sphere of Interest" is not to be construed as a "sovereign waters" claim by the Realm, as the BWA is strongly supportive of the international 12 nautical mile limit pertaining to territorial waters claims, and we strongly disapprove of any nation claiming "territorial waters" beyond this internationally accepted standard. The "Sphere of Interest" thus only pertains to economic, regional, and most notably ecologic interests, including fishery, offshore resource mining, rescue operations, and particularly enforcement of environmental protection measures. The attached map is to be considered "current" as of today's date.

Peace, Freedom, and Prosperity to all!

Gerald M'bawe, Deputy Realmsminister for the Exterior
BWA HQ Surina, Surin Prefecture, Chakrazipang, G.B.R.


(Graphic obsolete with new graphic as of 5 Oct/20 Nov)

Office of the Prime Minister
Kingdom of Christiana

April 7, 301

To the Esteemed Nations of Vexillium:

As an historical and current maritime nation, Christiana is quite concerned about the waters directly surrounding our islands. In addition, we are concerned about our relationshipwith our neighbors on our planet.

As a compromise to our former presentation on teritorial sovereignity, we offer the attached map. We have delineated the same territory as before, but we have made two modifications.

Please note the color of the waters outlined on the map.

The darkest shade of gray-blue is what we shall call our "Home Waters", and these extend to a point 50 miles (approximately 85 kilometers) from our coastline. This area, roughly corresponding to the continental shelf on the main island, is sovereign. The Royal Coast Guard shall patrol these areas to provide emergency and safety services, and to enforce the laws of our Kingdom.

The medium shade of gray-blue is what we shall call our "Area of Influence". Our Coast Guard will patrol this area to provide emergency and safety services, and in accordance with provisions of law as laid down by the UNV. Any lands that are discovered or shall arise in this area shall belong to the Kingdom. Those lands shall immediately have the 50 mile "Home Waters" territory assigned to them.

We must stand behind our 50 mile territorial limit, and this is not negotiable. We hope the international community can see that we have modified our position on the other waters to be more in line with international understandings, and will accept our limit modification.

With respect to all,
John Joseph, PM
For the King
Edward II, King of Christiana

(8 April 301)

Department of Transport
Royal Hydrographic Office

To the Seafaring Nations of Vexillium

Salem Alejkum to the Nations of Vexillium!

Following the examples of prominent nations like Christiana and the GBR, Feniz declares and claims the following oceanic zoning (ref. attached chart):

(a) Territorial waters (TW) 12 nautical miles light blue
<c 1 pixel>
(b) Home waters (HW) 45 nm solid blue
<as given by the new official map of Vexillium>
(c) Sphere of interest waters (SW) lines equidistant to all neighbours incl. counter-coast (Estontetso, Ulanova, Phenixia) blue bordered area
    SW start at the point where the borderline with Estontetso meets the coast, reach out to 10° N 4° W (most northern point) - 6° 30' N 2° 30' W (most eastern point) and end where the borderline with Phenixia meets the coast.

The different rule applicable in TW and HW are still to be defined. For the time being, both zones are sovereign territory where the Royal Navy shall patrol to provide emergency and safety services together with the FSSSP, and to enforce the laws of the state.

Friendly crossing of TW and HW by foreign naval forces is subject to prior permission by the Foreign Department.

Flying over TW and HW is subject to the rules and orders issued by the Royal Aviation Office and its branches which will be in accordance with international flight rules as soon as they are agreed.

The SW pertain to economic, regional, and ecologic interests, including fishery, offshore resource mining, rescue operations, and enforcement of environmental protection measures. In particular, fishing or crossing with fishing craft is forbidden for all non-Fenizic seacraft.

The Royal Navy will patrol the SW to provide emergency and safety services, in accordance with eventual provisions of law as laid down by the UNV.

Any lands that are discovered or shall arise in the SW shall belong to the state. Those lands shall immediately have the TW and HW territory assigned to them.

Regulations for the air traffic and aeronautical safety over SW will be installed, in accordance with international flight rules as soon as they are agreed.

This new definitions make obsolete and replaces the declaration on Territorial Waters as of 11 April 300 AP.

Peace to Vexillium's Oceans!

Capt. In'Der-See Aga
Director, Royal Hydrographic Office

(8 April 301)

Master Ronal Lear, Esq.
Office of Outlandish matters
The Bailey
Sibury SY1 BA1

The Nations of Vexillium

Fellow Vexillians!

Following the examples of Christiana, the GBR, and Feniz and further specifying the exact expanse of Somerish waters, we enclose a map and the limit coordinates for the area starting at the northwesternmost point:

Long. 60°N Lat. 0°
Long. 60°N Lat. 15°E
-(Land area)
Long. 27°N Lat. 4°E
Long. 30°N Lat. 4°E
Long. 30°N Lat. 3°E
Long. 31°30'N Lat. 3°E
Long. 31°30'N Lat. 1°30'E
Long. 32°30'N Lat. 1°30'E
Long. 32°30'N Lat. 0°

The Territorial Waters (within 12 nautical miles) are marked with a dark blue.

The so called "Home Waters" (within 45 nautical miles) are marked with a lighter blue.

The so called "Sphere of Interest" is marked with the lightest blue. Naturally our interest in this area is not merely an economical one, but also an ecological and environmental one.

Signed in Respect and Peace

Ronal Lear

Master of Outlandish Matters for the Shires

(8 April 301)

The Lendosan Confederation has no particular problem with these spheres of interest except the proximity of Sanx's sphere of interest to Lendosa. We judge, by your communiqué, that the Burovian Realm does not regard these areas as the exlusive jurisdiction of your nation in those areas, and if this is the case, we do not object. However, if our understanding is incorrect, we would wish the boundry to be set at an equidistant point between all Lendosan member states (specifically, the Federation of Rabel and the Patricianate of Rioch) and Sanx. We would appreciate clarification on this matter, and hope that we have interpreted Burovia's meaning correctly.

Senator Miranda da Sava
Diplomacy Section
Lendosan Confederation

Department of the Minister for Diplomatic Relations
The United Democratic Republic of Utania.
Sunday, April 8th, 301AP

Utania would, with all due respect to nations asserting their "spheres of influence", concur with the view of the Senator from the Lendosan Confederation.

It should be clear that these "Spheres of influence" should not consist of any form of exclusive rights to the nations who claim them, beyond the initial 12nm from the nation's coastline or a proposed 200km Economic Exclusion Zone.

Utania acknowledges that she is far from the "Sphere of influence" of either the GBR or Christiana, but is deeply concerned about the trend toward developing, or more specifically toward _declaring_ such "spheres". Is this a trend indicating the dividing of the world between the great powers of the world? Are the Great Powers promising not to intervene in each other's "Sphere of influence" for any reason, exclusive of the interests of smaller or unaligned nations?


This fact should prevent any responsible nation from declaring "spheres of influence" as any nominal dictator, bent on world influence and domination, would. Should they wish to influence the economic and ecological status of a region outside their direct control, they should engage in dialogue with the nations of the globe to establish a mutual treaty. Only by acting with this same respect can they hope to be treated with reciprocating respect as "Great Powers".


With due respect to all nations in Vexillium;
For the continued peace that abides on Vexillium;
Peace be with you.

Robert Talin,
Minister for Diplomatic Relations

(8 April 301)

On behalf of His Royal Majesty, King Bruno II, I bid greetings to the Kingdom of Christiana.

Prime Minister John Joseph wrote:
"We urge all nations to publicly pronounce their territorial claims as such. We also ask our neighbors to enter into negotiations if their are any disputes or differences."

The Greater Zartanian Empire thanks the Kingdom of Christiana for the clarification of the kingdom's territorial claims. ... The Empire also claims territorial waters to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the coasts of these territories, as well as territorial air space out to the same distance. The Imperial Zartanian Navy and the Royal Zartanian Air Force rigorously enforce the 200-mile limit. Any ships registered to countries with whom the Empire currently enjoys relations are allowed to pass through our waters, and passenger flights from the same countries are allowed to fly through our air space (with certain areas restricted). Countries with whom we do not currently enjoy relations are barred from our waters and our air space. We hope this helps the rest of Vexillium to understand our territorial claims.

May Honor and Glory grace the Kingdom of Christiana for Eternity.

Lord James du Maneisch
KSZ ambassador to Christiana
on behalf of His Royal Majesty, King Bruno II vun Q'Leist

(Mike, 17 Nov 301)

He (who?) pointed out that if Morania, Sempervirens and Eastern Delgamia were to follow suit, nations like Allacoa and Caledon would become "land-locked", rendering the four-continent seas "an inland lake".

(Thomas, November 17, 2001 7:58 AM )

Actually, I think that there's enough space in between Nuarmia and Fiarria for a corridor of international waters to exist, and the same for Eastern Delgamia and San Patricio. I don't think they could get passed Ordland and Kalesthesia, though.

I think we have a tendancy to overestimate territorial waters sometimes, primarily because our nations are all so much larger than real Earth ones. I once thought that I the strait between Lendia and Piolhosa would be Lendosan territory, but in actual fact, it turns out to be hundreds of miles wide.

Personally, I would like to see some different laws regarding territorial waters... I think that defining them as being "that darker blue area that you can see around all the bits of land on Max's maps" would solve a lot of problems. :-) (That would actually expand them a bit, just in case people are thinking that they'll loose something).

I also think it would be interesting to have a law which proclaimed that any waters which are located between two non-connecting parts of the same state's territorial waters should be counted as part of that state's territorial waters too. Okay, that probably wasn't too clear... basically, I mean that if a country has some sort of strait between it, somehow, but its territorial waters don't actuall stretch far enough, they should be given that water as well. The reason I think of this is that my own country, Lendosa, has this problem - as it stands, people could probably sail, fish, dump nuclear waste, and conduct atomic bomb tests out in the strait between Lendia and Piolhosa, and the Lendosan government wouldn't be able to stop them (I don't think we have EEZs in Vex at the moment). Under this idea, Lendosa would get control of that water by virtue of the fact that it's partially enclosed, in a sense, by Lendosa. Other places that might be able to do something similar are the UTFN, St Kilda, Armatirion (with its island in the Eulos Sea), and perhaps Solelhada.

I may even submit it as a proposed change to the UNV charter. It's interesting that none of the people who've been blocking ships or complaining about blocks ships have consulted the document which deals with territorial waters and the right of ships to pass through them... or, at least, nobody's mentioned the *highly* *important* thing contained there, which could *completly* *change* the *whole* situation... perhaps people should take a look...

(my own comment, 17 Nov 301)

A very interesting study, indeed. Well, you say the territorial waters thing is in the UNV convention. It seems ... that in case of need, only power counts and not the conventions, for and from which they might be.

As to claims: We had such a discussion earlier, and it is still on my to-do list to go deeper into it and perhaps make a statement ...

So if we plan a new convention, we must at first sort out the existing claims, define the existing usages (e.g. an EEZ may not be limited to just economic usage but also Coast Guard, cf. Christiana)...

(Mike, 19 Nov 301)

Well, I agree with the principle (of Thomas), most definitely...

And I thought EEZs WERE implemented. At least every man and his dog, in our last round of declarations of territorial waters, everyone was declaring their EEZs.

(Thomas, 19 Nov 301)

In legalistic terms, an EEZ gives "sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing natural resources, both living and non-living, of the seabed and subsoil and the superjacent waters and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds". It also extends to "the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures, marine scientific research, the protection and preservation of the marine environment, and other rights and duties."

My interpretation: a country is allowed to regulate any commercial or scientific activity within its EEZ. This would mean, however, that unless a ship passing through the EEZ was being commercial or scientific at the time, it couldn't be stopped, as it isn't violating anything to do with the Exclusive Economic Zone. However... the definition of "commercial" may well be rather flexible. For example, is a freighter or tanker undertaking commercial activity? It isn't fishing, drilling, or mining, but it is, presumably, undertaking a commercial venture - transport. So, can a country stop civilian vessels entering its EEZ? Probably, given that it seems to be up to a government to define the terms involved. (Aside: if somebody raised the issue about Allacoa's ships, there'd be a real mess... is it a commercial activity to sail through an area to conduct scientific activity designed to determine whether it's worth conducting a commercial activity somewhere else?)

I don't think the issue is really relevant, however... EEZ's aren't recognised by any sort of relatively global document like the UNV charter, and thus it's up to individual nations to decide whether they recognise them or not. It could, of course, get thorny if somebody were to stop a ship in an EEZ that the ship's country didn't recognise the existance of.

(Utania, 19 Nov 301)

If required, Utania will support any resolution that condemns the effective blockading of free Straits or bodies of water to ships of commercial not military value, and calls for the UNV to launch a General Assembly subcommittee to evaluate strategies for these bodies of water to remain free to commercial shipping at all times.

We would nominate the Lendosan Confederation to lead such a subcommittee.

(19 Nov 301)

The Lendosan Confederation would be happy to undertake this task, should other nations agree.

Senator Miranda da Sava
Diplomacy Section
Lendosan Confederation

(20 Nov 301)

The BWA extends its greetings, in the name of all People of the Realm!

The BWA feels it necessary to clarify its position on the recent issue of potential Glaciarian exploitations.

The BWA firmly opposes the exploitation of Glaciaria's pristine environment in any form, and would be opposed to the Fenizic and Allacoan efforts to drill for oil there or nearby. However, we do not at this time support the use of military force for the purposes of keeping civilian vessels of a nation from reaching their own sovereign territory.

As a matter of reference, the BWA and the Realm would consider an action amounting to a naval blockade where Realm ships are prevented from conducting their business in international waters, and in especially in their OWN sovereign waters and territories, as an act of aggression or even war. This is especially true for declared scientific or exploratory missions without direct military or environmental threat. To be absolutely clear, should Realm research vessels ever be stopped, blocked, or even boarded by foreign entities in international waters, or even in its own territorial waters, the use of military force in response would be a near certainty on our part, as these actions would be little more than piracy or aggression towards harmless sovereign civilian vessels.


We also repeat our intention of considering the flipside: economic embargos and sanctions as a dissuasion to the Allacoan government, not to breach an international "Gentlemen's Agreement" on the Glaciarian environment. We recognize the actions taken by the BWA Joannina strictly as a symbolic act of protest which they are entitled to, as the entire Realm would not grant passage through its sovereign waters to this particular convoy. While we recognize territorial rights of Allacoa in Guadacoa, we do not intend to encourage potentially harmful actions to the environment. The actions taken by the BWA Joannina are to be seen purely as an act of protest.

We are aware that there are certain private entities based inside the Realm that may attempt to intercept convoys. The BWA is in no way affiliated with these entities, and our position is that they shall adhere to Burovian law inside Realm waters and to international law in international waters. In no way or form can the BWA be considered as being connected to the actions taken by any private entities outside our waters.

We also renew our pledge to act as the environmental enforcers in the oceans of Vexilium within our declared spheres of interest (diagram attached), to keep a close vigil on ALL activities that may affect the oceanic ecosystems present. Take notice, environmental rogues of Vexillium, perpetrate environmental crimes in these areas, and you will have to answer to us!

Peace, Freedom, and Prosperity to All!

Gerald M'bewe, Deputy Realmsminister for the Exterior (currently in Oost-Otago)
BWA Ixihuepetl, Oost-Otago, G.B.R.


REALMSMINISTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FRIEDRICH STUCKENBATSCH, has issued the same statement as given in the last paragraph, in CANHOTO, ESTONTETSO on Oct 5, 301, as a result of the ongoing environmental conference.

(Mike, 20 Nov 301)

But, I still think that the EEZ should extend beyond that (50 nm), and that the UNV committee should look closely at the concept of "Stewardship" of oceans, that is, regions where a nation is the "caretaker", but not exclusive owner of a region of ocean. How that would work precisely is up to the sub-committee, but I think the principle of a caretaker, even if only for "S&R" should be considered.

(21 Nov 301)

Foreign Department

Gerald M'bewe, Deputy Realmsminister for the Exterior
BWA Ixihuepetl

Salem Alejkum to The BWA!

In response to you message:
Sent: Tuesday, November 20, 301 4:52 AM
Subject: [vexillium] BWA statement on recent events surrounding Allacoan convoy
"However, we do not at this time support the use of military force for the purposes of keeping civilian vessels of a nation from reaching their own sovereign territory."

We gratefully welcome this attitude.


"...and to international law in international waters."

Which does not yet exist!

"...within our declared spheres of interest ..."

These will have to be discussed at another place and time; they comprise little less than half the planet's oceans.


Peace to the Realm!

Sheihk G'Ensh-Er Pasha
Acting Secretary for Foreign Affairs



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